Development of the AWACAN breast and cervical cancer tool followed a four-step process of:
- Generating tool items by reviewing the UK Breast Cancer Awareness Measurement (BCAM) and Cervical Cancer Awareness Measurement (CCAM) tools, the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) tool, and studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa that used these or other relevant tools.
- Refining items by assessing content and face validity.
- Validating the English version of the AWACAN tool and,
- Developing isiXhosa and Acholi language versions of the tool
For further information on the review of SSA studies, please see: Githaiga JN, Walter FM, Scott SE, Mwaka AD, Moodley J. Symptom awareness measures for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review. S. Afr. j. oncol. 2019;3(0), a78. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajo.v3i0.78
For further information on the development and validation of the tool, please see: Moodley J, Scott SE, Mwaka AD, Constant D, Githaiga JN, Stewart TS, Payne A, Cairncross L, Somdyala NIM, Walter FM .Development and validation of the African Women Awareness of CANcer (AWACAN) tool for breast and cervical cancer. PLOSOne. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220545
For further information on the use of the validated tool to measure breast and cervical cancer symptom and risk factor awareness and lay beliefs in Uganda and South Africa, please see: Moodley J, Constant D, Mwaka AD, Scott SE, Walter FM. Mapping awareness of breast and cervical cancer risk factors, symptoms and lay beliefs in Uganda and South Africa. PLoS ONE 2020 15(10): e0240788. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240788