The AWACAN tool

Development of the AWACAN breast and cervical cancer tool followed a four-step process of:

  1. Generating tool items by reviewing the UK Breast Cancer Awareness Measurement (BCAM) and Cervical Cancer Awareness Measurement (CCAM) tools, the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) tool, and studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa that used these or other relevant tools.
  2. Refining items by assessing content and face validity.
  3. Validating the English version of the AWACAN tool and,
  4. Developing isiXhosa and Acholi language versions of the tool

For further information on the review of SSA studies please see: Githaiga JN, Walter FM, Scott SE, Mwaka AD, Moodley J. Symptom awareness measures for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review. S. Afr. j. oncol. 2019;3(0), a78.

For further information on the development and validation of the tool please see: J Moodley J, Scott SE, Mwaka AD, Constant D, Githaiga JN, Stewart TS, Payne A, Cairncross L, Somdyala NIM, Walter FM .Development and validation of the African Women Awareness of CANcer (AWACAN) tool for breast and cervical cancer. PLOSOne. 2019.